Leaders also ensured that high-quality vaccinators were hired, trained, and appropriately supervised; instituted independent monitoring of vaccinator performance; and conducted careful microplanning to ensure that all high-risk areas were covered in supplemental immunization activities. The global eradication program for polio has been ongoing since and has missed 2 previous deadlines for eradication. Currently, achieving eradication is closer than ever, and the year was an important crossroads for the eradication program: the WHO and World Health Assembly declared polio eradication a public health emergency, and all 3 remaining endemic countries implemented national emergency action plans that resulted in significant improvements in immunization campaign quality.
As of October 28, , further reductions in numbers of cases were reported in Nigeria. To complete eradication of all polio disease, it will be necessary to stop the use of OPV globally, because the live-attenuated viruses can cause polio themselves, albeit rarely. Originally, the global strategy was to eradicate all 3 wild polio serotypes and then stop all use of tOPV.
However, the following several factors point to a much-needed change in endgame strategy:. Polio cases — Thus, to eliminate cVDPVs along with wild poliovirus, the polio endgame now calls for the introduction of IPV in countries that previously used only OPV and a stepwise elimination of OPV types starting with the type 2 component of tOPV in , followed by withdrawal of all OPV in —, after the global certification of polio eradication.
Switching to bOPV, which protects against poliovirus types 1 and 3, will stop future generation of type 2 cVDPVs and improve seroconversion and immunity against types 1 and 3 because bOPV is substantially more immunogenic per dose against those serotypes than is tOPV. The use of IPV in routine immunization will facilitate outbreak control when used along with mOPV should polioviruses be reintroduced from any source. Data from Faden et al 17 indicate that a dose of IPV followed by a dose of OPV will lead to higher immunity levels than a single dose of OPV, thus facilitating outbreak control compared with controlling an outbreak in an unvaccinated population.
Furthermore, when administered to children who have received previous doses of OPV, IPV leads to higher than expected seroconversion rates among seronegative people than when IPV is given to vaccine-naive individuals. However, IPV is inferior to OPV in reducing shedding of virus in the stool, raising concerns about its effectiveness in reducing transmission via the fecal-oral route, thought to be the predominant mode of transmission in developing countries.
Nevertheless, IPV substantially reduces duration of excretion and quantity of virus shed in the stool of vaccinated people compared with vaccine-naive controls, suggesting that it could impede transmission. The new endgame plan includes tOPV withdrawal as 1 of 4 primary objectives:. The GPEI will work with Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance formerly The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization and other immunization partners to secure funding, develop adaptive strategies, foster political will, and ensure progress on this endgame plan.
As part of the effort to prepare for tOPV withdrawal, the plan outlines how the development and licensure of affordable IPV options will be fast-tracked. This plan includes exploring a new fractional approximately one-fifth dose delivered intradermally, adjuvanted IPV formulations that are dose sparing, Sabin IPV formulations that allow production by developing country vaccine manufacturers, and possibly new delivery technologies eg, via dose-sparing microneedle administration. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan calls for an ambitious objective by asking the more than industrialized and developing countries currently using tOPV to introduce at least 1 dose of IPV in their routine immunization programs by A current goal of the endgame plan to build political support is to obtain a World Health Assembly resolution of the member states to endorse the switch from tOPV to bOPV and incorporate at least 1 dose of IPV into routine schedules.
Without introducing IPV, countries will have an unprecedented accumulation of all children born after the switch who are susceptible to type 2 polioviruses should they be reintroduced. Eliminating polio in the remaining endemic countries will ease burdens and free up resources for these countries to focus on other areas of development, both health-related and other areas.
Because routine use of IPV is expected to boost immunity to poliovirus types 1 and 3, if IPV is incorporated into the routine immunization programs in these endemic countries soon, it could hasten eradication of those types. SAGE also recommended that all countries should introduce at least 1 dose of IPV in their routine immunization programs to mitigate the risks and consequences associated with the eventual withdrawal of the poliovirus type 2 component of OPV.
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More recently, in November , among other recommendations, SAGE recommended that IPV be administered in addition to the 3 to 4 doses of OPV in the primary series and that the IPV dose should be administered during an immunization contact at or after 14 weeks of age. A number of obstacles and barriers must be overcome to fully implement the endgame strategic plan and achieve sustained eradication, as follows:.
Until eradication is achieved, we will always be at risk for poliovirus reappearing anywhere in the world.
The recent experience in Israel underscores the importance of having an early warning system, such as routine sewage testing for poliovirus, for timely detection of virus presence or spread, particularly in countries at high risk of transmission. The continuation of support for overall polio eradication via the GPEI has been deemed justified from an economic perspective. These activities include a multifaceted strategy to ensure an adequate supply of affordable IPV; financial support for IPV introduction, regulatory requirements, advocacy, and communications; strengthening routine immunization; and country readiness for introduction of IPV into routine immunization systems.
The American Academy of Pediatrics supports the SAGE 16 recommendations and encourages other pediatric societies in middle- and lower-income countries and leading scientists to support the policy and advocate with governments to implement the recommendations. Pediatricians in the United States can help ensure that the US legacy of eliminating polio is sustained and enjoyed by all countries in these important ways recently updated guidance is underlined :. Strive to educate parents and patients about the importance of eradicating polio, not just in the United States but worldwide.
Ensure that patients traveling internationally receive all recommended vaccines, including a booster dose of IPV when appropriate eg, those at increased risk because of travel to polio-endemic or -epidemic areas of the world, working in a laboratory handling poliovirus, or health care workers treating those with polio 27 ; moreover, patients traveling internationally should be adequately counseled on the increased risks of contracting illnesses in endemic countries as well as recommended avoidance measures eg, hand washing.
Consider polio in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with fever and acute flaccid paralysis.
If the case is clinically compatible with polio, notify public health authorities immediately and collect 2 stool specimens at least 24 hours apart within 14 days of onset of paralysis for detection of virus. Note that because most polio infections are silent, a case of paralytic polio in the United States may have been acquired from an asymptomatic individual, so a history of travel to a polio-infected area may be absent in the case of paralysis.
Advocate with government officials about the importance of funding, support, and technical assistance for global immunization programs, especially the GPEI. Advocate with pediatric societies in developing and middle-income countries to support incorporation of at least 1 dose of IPV to complement OPV used in routine immunization programs. This document is copyrighted and is property of the American Academy of Pediatrics and its Board of Directors. All authors have filed conflict of interest statements with the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Any conflicts have been resolved through a process approved by the Board of Directors. The American Academy of Pediatrics has neither solicited nor accepted any commercial involvement in the development of the content of this publication. The guidance in this report does not indicate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as a standard of medical care.
Variations, taking into account individual circumstances, may be appropriate. Clinical reports from the American Academy of Pediatrics benefit from expertise and resources of liaisons and internal AAP and external reviewers. However, clinical reports from the American Academy of Pediatrics may not reflect the views of the liaisons or the organizations or government agencies that they represent.
All clinical reports from the American Academy of Pediatrics automatically expire 5 years after publication unless reaffirmed, revised, or retired at or before that time. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. Skip to main content. Walter A. Download PDF. Background Before eradication efforts began, polio was a pervasive viral disease and a significant cause of disability. Statement of Problem Eliminating OPV To complete eradication of all polio disease, it will be necessary to stop the use of OPV globally, because the live-attenuated viruses can cause polio themselves, albeit rarely.
Conclusions The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan calls for an ambitious objective by asking the more than industrialized and developing countries currently using tOPV to introduce at least 1 dose of IPV in their routine immunization programs by February 25, Polio research paper topics Published by at March 19, Categories Uncategorised. Related posts. Read more. Scientists have spent years developing and testing vaccines to prevent illnesses like polio, measles, diphtheria, tetanus, and chickenpox Then it is replicating in the lymphoid and epithelial tissues of the upper GI tract.
While the incubation period is generally only days, it can be anywhere from days. This is when viremia will occur and the virus will begin to spread. If it does not reach the central nervous system then the patient will only have abortive poliomyelitis. They will have some flu like symptoms and experience a full recovery. As the virus goes further, one may become stricken with aseptic meningitis.
This polio is considered non-paralytic, has the same symptoms as abortive poliomyelitis, and irritates the meninges It was an acute viral disease which was caused by the inflammation of the motor neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord. In addition, being affected by the poliovirus caused paralysis of the body and sometimes even death.
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It was a disease that scientists could not find a cure for it. But at the peak of its devastation in the United States, a vaccine has been introduced to prevent it Roosevelt was inaugurated as the President of the United States. He waited sitting at the edge of his chair, having to deal with what no other President faced before. As he was ready to stand he positioned his legs straight out in front of him, and locked the custom-made braces that supported his legs. With just enough room he would lean to one side and swing his leg out in front of him, and from the help of the wooden cane it was enough to help him walk, and take the oath as President of the United States Tobin Roosevelt, United States].
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People have different beliefs about vaccines having different side effects. India has a belief of vaccines killing or making things worse. There are two types of these vaccinations, such as an injectable and an oral version. It had great advances in health, accordingly they still lived in fear of it for their children which made the disease still existence My first memorable experience with shots came at age four.
All I knew was this sharp thing was going to be stuck in my arm and it was going to hurt.
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Before I got my four year old shots I received my first set of vaccines, vaccines that people are now claiming are dangerous. Research shows that vaccination rates fell. MMR mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine rates dropped from Good Essays words 4. Gey is the researcher at Johns Hopkins University who took the cell sample from Henrietta Lacks and is a world renowned scientist, famous for creating the first cells of HeLa Parents know the importance of keeping their child safe; they will ensure this protection by investing in baby gates, car seats, and the most new and improved stroller.
However, what many parents do not know is that vaccinations are one of the best ways to protect your child. Many parents have been skeptical in getting their child immunized, but there are definitely more pros to vaccinations than there are cons. Those with the opposing view have their concerns of why their children should not be vaccinated, but there is a lot of evidence and long-term health benefits for those who do Where this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of whether or not there are alternative methods available to researchers.
My own view is that animal experimentation is necessary. Carl Cohen, who is a professor of philosophy at the University of Michigan, remembers when he was a counselor at a camp in North Carolina for young children in Setting apart this slightly different ways of defining CF, one obvious similarity between them can be recognized: it concerns about linguistic accuracy of a piece of writing. Therefore, in this paper, written CF will be defined as corrections on linguistic errors. Since the development of vaccines in the late 19th century, epidemics have declined and vaccines have become a major part of modern health.
Getting vaccinated is encouraged by health professionals, especially children, but it is not required.
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While many people choose to vaccinate their children, a portion of people choose not to. This has raised many questions over if parents should require parents to vaccinate their children, or if it is their own right to choose how to protect their children 's health That year, there were over 27, cases and more than 6, deaths due to polio in the United States. Before the polio vaccine was developed in by Dr.